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The companies comprising this regiment, were recruited with the superintendence of Colonel Leonard Martin, and were organized at Camp Washburn, Milwaukee, during the months of February, March, April and May, 1865, and were forwarded to Benton Barracks, the regimental rendezvous, the last company being organized on the 29th of April. The other four companies, not having left the State, were mustered out and discharged at Milwaukee, on the 6th of May, under the general orders of the War Department, for the reduction of the army. 
The companies composing the regiment were placed on duty at Warrensburg, Mo., and employed in guarding the construction of the Pacific Railroad from Holden to Pleasant Hill.
On the 11th of June, 1865, the Fifty-third regiment, (four companies,) by order of the War Department, was consolidated with the Fifty-First.
The regiment returned to Madison on the 5th of August, 965, where they were mustered out by companies, completing the same on the 30th of August. As they were mustered out, they were paid and disbanded. 
Regimental Statistics.- Original strength, 841. Gain -by recruits in 1865, 2; total, 843. Loss -by death, 8; deserted, 87; discharged, 34; mustered out, 714